Monday, September 30, 2019

Nursing Philosophy Essay

Nursing Philosophy, Model, and Theory Discussion Question Jennifer Gauze, Kathy Hatfield, Karen Hunt, Rina Lacombe, Jillian Morrow, Stephanie Yates Theories and Models of Nursing Practice May Thirteenth, 2013 Mary McGill Nursing Philosophy, Model, and Theory Discussion Question In this paper we are going to discuss three different theorists, Dorthea Orem, Ida Orlando, and Betty Neuman. We will discuss how their theories expand our view of the nursing process and now they fit during our workday. Dorthea Orem believed that people have the innate ability for self-care (Simmons, 2009). It is our duty as nurses to encourage, and promote self-care though patient teaching. This is critical to maximize our patient’s health. We are to make sure patients can meet their basic needs by participating in their care. Simmons, L. (2009). Dorthea orem’s self care theory as related to nursing practice in hemodialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 36(4), 419-21. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/216533281? accountid=35812 Ida Jean Orlando’s theory focuses on how nurses process observations and respond based on the interactions with their patients. Orlando’s theory differentiates between automatic and deliberate action (Alligood, 2010). Orlando’s theory of deliberative nursing process is important in the planning stage. Planning verses automatic action is crucial to ensure the desired outcomes in implementing care for patients. Taking time to process the observations made during the nurse-patient interaction  assists  in planning  individualized patient care based on the needs  that are identified  for that specific patient. Surrounding the core are the patient’s lines of defense which function to help maintain stability. Anything, internally or externally, can disrupt lines of defense resulting in illness, injury, or depression. As nurses, we work to repair the broken lines of defense and to strengthen and maintain existing ones while keeping the core in mind as our main focus. Neuman’s theory correlates with the nursing process. We must first assess our patients to determine broken lines of defense. We then make a plan with a goal to repair broken lines of defense and carry out our plan. Evaluation of the patient is an ongoing process. We must look at our result and determine if our interventions are effective or not. As we carry out our nursing care plan, the patient’s lines of defense should become stronger. ( Jillian ) Alligood, M. R. (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (4th ed. ). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Retrieved from University of Phoenix University Library

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Microeconomics: concepts, analysis, and applications Essay

Southwest Airlines is an organization in the Airline industry and it has remained to be a competitive leader in this industry since its inception. It is the America’s largest low-fare carrier and domestically it serves huge number of customers than any other Airline. This organization operates more than three thousand flights daily. Southwest Airlines operate under an environment with intense competition; however, its marketing strategy has helped the organization to have a competitive advantage over its competitors. In all southwest Airline marketing communications, it positions itself in America as the only short-haul, low-fare, point-to-point, high frequency carrier that is fun to fly. Once the organization enters into a particular market the following changes are experienced; economic mini-boom occurs, tourist traffic increases and air fares go down. Airline industry is highly volatile, however southwest airline has remained relevant in the industry and also profitable eve ry year meaning that it has been profitable for a period of 31 years. For most of year 2000, the organizations 9 billion dollars market capitalization is more than the combined market capitalization of every other Airline in United States. Southwest airline market strategy has ensured cost efficiency thus increasing the profit margins for the organization. Some of the most marketing strategies adapted by this organization include: using smaller airports which are less congested thus saving time, flying one type of aircraft only, and eliminating seating assignments and meal service. Even though southwest airline has been using these same marketing strategies, no other airline has been able to clone southwest’s success productively (Freiberg & Freiberg, 1996). In order to secure its market position successfully, southwest airline has been forced to be extremely cost-efficient. In this regard, southwest has designed a business model which uses short-hauls, single aircraft type, hub -and -spoke versus point-to-point, secondary airports all aimed at reducing the costs. Most organizations in the airline market utilize information technology like a platform aimed at sharing information from a given unit of business to another. However, southwest airline upholds a different approach. Southwest has strengthened the on-site operations agents’ roles who are entrusted with the responsibility to turn around every flight of southwest as fast as possible. In the airline market the operations agents have a responsibility for handling 3 to 5 flights at any one time but southwest strategy ensures that their operations agents are responsible in handling one flight turnaround. Southwest has established a culture where even pilots are willing to assis t in loading luggage so as to help in getting away in time thus saving time. This demonstrates flexible job boundaries existing throughout the whole organization where any individual is very ready to pitch in wherever needed (Lauer, 2010). Avoiding delays is the key to profitably running an Airline with turning around the planes. In the airline industry market, in a case where a delay is experienced in the airline market, they try assessing whether this was as a result of led by the ramp agents, baggage handlers, refuellers or any other functional department. However in Southwest airline delays are recoded to be team delays. Through being less precise concerning the delay cause and assessing performance through metrics which matter to the consumers. In this regard southwest focus more on learning ways of avoiding a repeat of such instances in the future compared to accountability. Airline industry in United States has experienced high price in regard to intra-Texas air travel and southwest was envisioned and was able to respond to this issue through coming up with the suitable solutions. Southwest provides a travel product which is in built around flights which are targeted to particular ticket pricing and demographics that is simplified in order for the passengers to realize what they actually getting for their money paid. Before the entry of southwest Airline into the airline market, passengers and business travelers were used to be pampered, paid full price however in the end they ended up being disappointed. Southwest strategies usually gave insomnia to other normal executives from the Airline industry. Southwest strategy shows an organization which is very unusual and very devoted towards their consumers and employees (Lauer, 2010). A niche exists in the Airline market where southwest Airline has extensive potential of future growth. Southwest has been built on foundation of strategic management. This strategy has helped this organization in taking it into a new level of superiority and expanding of the airline’s market. Therefore southwest possess an agg ressive strategy, planned to be a constant success (Lauer, 2010). There are definitive and clear boundaries between employees working in diverse functional areas in most Airlines. Most workers are able to interact well with their fellow peers however ignore those others who are below them in the organization hierarchy. In cases where there are delays employees tend to blame those who are lower in hierarchy than them for the delay. However, in south west they have created a culture where all employees treat others with respect despite of their levels in the organizational hierarchy (Lovelock, 1992). All employees acknowledge the distinct responsibilities played in keeping planes flying by different functional departments. Therefore everyone’s contribution to the organization contributes to the success of the organization and thus every individual is respected and acknowledged. This respect by all employees of the organization helps in appreciating the contribution of one another to the organization and there is a tendency to act productively in achieving the larger organizational goals (Bahreini & Willis, 1988). Southwest Airlines has utilized the following ten relationships in generating extraordinary performance; investing in front-line leaders, outstanding business relationship, hiring and training for relationship excellence, using conflicts in building relationships, using broad performance metrics, bridge work-family divide, creating the positions which span boundaries, partnering with the unions, build the supplier relationships, highly flexible job descriptions and using highly flexible job descriptions. These all ten organizational relationships are exceedingly complementally; however they only generate benefits when they are all utilized and implemented. In this regard these relationships work in unison and not in isolation. Substantial benefits of these relationships can be realized only all ten are present. This in turn realizes both negative effects and positive effects. The negative effects will be that it will necessitate making various changes on many fronts concurrently to a ttain it. On the other hand, the positive effects are that an organization which follows lead of southwest airline company and establish strong organizational relationships can accomplish great success. However, the outcomes of using the ten relationships as in the case of southwest can be both long lasting and impressive. Therefore, any company can improve efficiency and quality of its performance through adapting these relationships to its own specific needs (Tadajewski & Brownlie, 2008). Leadership in southwest Airlines is a distribute process. Senior management team is popular in the public arena however most of the actual work is performed by the supervisors who with frontline employees on a daily basis. Southwest Airline in reality has more supervisors per frontline worker compared other all other Airlines, and the organization succeeds at training these supervisors in providing leadership on issues occurring on daily basis. Supervisors in Southwest present the bulk of the organization’s counseling and coaching. Southwest also makes a conscious and deliberate effort of hiring employees who are excellent in working as a team (Lauer, 2010). This organization also endeavors at enhancing team building skills through offering their employees training for relational competence. In other organizations, there is an attempt of retaining and attracting high performers, but southwest instead of hiring the elites it gives high priority while hiring to those individuals who are capable of integrating with other team members smoothly. Therefore, this organization recruits individuals who uphold right attitudes and then offer them with the necessary experience and skills they require to succeed. Southwest has distinct labor relations and this has helped to eliminate occurrences of employees strikes in the organization. An Airline industry is an oligopolistic market where every seller supplies a huge portion of entire products which are sold in the marketplace. Since the cost of setting up a business is normally very high the number of the organizations entering in this market is usually low. Organizations in this market are able to control over the prices that they charge. Therefore, when one organization offers fair prices than others, then its competitors also usually introduces similar promotions. Southwest has been facing excess competition from other airlines however through exemplary marketing strategies an Airline that paying for jet fuel using a personal credit card and borrowing tools has grown to be a record-breaking profitable Airline company. Southwest was one of the factors that led to end of the airline industry regulation, therefore getting rid of the barriers facing those entering the industry and also encouraging competition. Southwest was primarily responsible for keeping, Love, midway and Hobby airports open (Stone, 1980). Southwest is still the leader in the airline industry and it is a no-frills carrier. In this regard, this Airline offers no reserved seats, no catering and no first-class. The primary goal of this organization is making air travel affordable to those individuals who could not afford it previously and not profit maximization. Southwest makes profit on average if only the last five seats on a plane are filled. This Airline as a regional carrier is unique. Southwest is popular among the passengers since they carry their customers’ non-stop from point A to point B. southwest provides no interline connections with the other airlines, except for Icelandic Air connections. This helps in wise use of time since airplanes are not delayed by ticket counter lines or connecting travelers. Their strategies have also helped in reducing the unemployment rates in United States. This is because in a case where an airplane spends exceedingly twenty minutes at the gate this will increase the loca l rates of unemployment (Pride & Ferrell, 1995). In conclusion, southwest employs marketing strategies which helps in ensuring that the organization is the most popular among the passengers. The southwest also has a culture of respecting all their stakeholders despite their hierarchy or role in the organization. All southwest employees’ works as a team and they are very motivated which improves their job satisfaction and productivity in the organization. All these marketing strategies highly contribute towards the success of southwest Airline Company. References Bahreini, M. H., & Willis, J. F. (1988). Microeconomics: concepts, analysis, and applications. Redding, Calif.: CAT Pub. Co.. Freiberg, K., & Freiberg, J. (1996). Nuts!: Southwest Airlines’ crazy recipe for business and personal success. Austin, Tex.: Bard Books. Lauer, C. (2010). Southwest Airlines. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood. Lovelock, C. H. (1992). Managing services: marketing, operations, and human resources (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Pride, W. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (1995). Marketing: concepts and strategies (9th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Stone, M. (1980). Marketing and economics. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Tadajewski, M., & Brownlie, D. T. (2008). Critical marketing: contemporary issues in marketing. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Source document

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Botanical gardens Essay Example for Free

Botanical gardens Essay Last summer, my two friends rekindled an idea we had for a long time of going for a short excursion to a nearby lake where we would camp for three days. First we informed our parents of our intentions which they supported without any objection. We intended to use this opportunity to help in bonding our relationship even more. After this approval, we did a good budget of all the things that we required for the three days of our camping. After drawing the budget, we sourced for the required money most of which came from our pocket savings with a little help from our parents. We chose to set our camping dates within a weekend as these are the days when most of us had free time. After an informative consultation, we also found out that the camp is only open during the weekends so as to give the camping ground vegetation enough time to regenerate. When the day came, we all set off during the morning so that we could get to our destination in time. This also gave us an opportunity to select the best site to set our camps before other people could take up the available sites. After setting our tents, we embarked on a trip along the shores of the lake and the adjacent flower and botanical gardens. We spent the second day canoeing and swimming as well as participating in some of conservational activities that are a mandatory practice for every camper. By the dawn of the third day, we could not believe that the day had come for us to pack our belongings and head back home. The camping experience proved to be a worthy exercise by providing a refreshing moment in our life. Botanical gardens. (2016, Nov 05).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Negligent Security & Premises Liability Research Paper

Negligent Security & Premises Liability - Research Paper Example The researcher states that unlike many laws that are enforced uniformly across the United States, premises liability law can differ from state to state. As an example, consider the scenario of an individual visiting an apartment and injuring themselves there. In some states, the owners of the apartment building would be liable for the injury; however, in other states, the tenant of the apartment where the injury occurred would be liable for the injury. Therefore, as described in the example, the law of premises liability can be enforced differently depending on the laws of the state involved. As indicated by the classic elements of premises liability, the plaintiff had to be an invitee or licensee in order to hold a landowner liable for a tort that occurs while the plaintiff is on the premises. A 1968 California Supreme Court decision, however, removed the legal distinction between an invitee, licensee, and trespasser when deciding if the possessor of the land could be held liable fo r harm that occurs on the premises and held that a landowner owed a reasonable duty of care to anyone on their premises. This decision held that a possessor of land could be held liable for harm that occurs on their property, even if the harm is to a trespasser or an individual that was not invited and should not be on the premises. Attractive Nuisance Doctrine The 1971 case Haddad v. First National Stores, Inc. established the standard for the duty of care owed to trespassing children. Previously the duty  of a landowner owed to trespassers was not to harm them in a willful or wanton manner; however, the Haddad decision changed this standard and added a special duty of care with regard to children. The court adopted the attractive nuisance doctrine which makes a landowner liable if the plaintiff can prove: 1) the owner knows, or has reason to know, that children are likely to trespass where the condition exists; 2) the condition is one which the landowner knows and realizes, or h as reason to know and realize, involves an unreasonable risk of serious injury or death to such children; 3) the child does not realize the risk or danger involved; 4) the utility to the landowner of maintaining the condition is slight compared to the risk to children; and, 5) the landowner fails to exercise reasonable care to eliminate the danger or otherwise protect the children. Even though the case established the attractive nuisance doctrine, it is difficult for both a plaintiff and defendant to be involved in any case based on this doctrine. Another development in the premises liability law relates to the element of the law regarding the necessity of negligence or some other wrongful act. â€Å"Third party premises liability† cases refer to cases where the possessor or owner of a property can be held liable for injury or harm that occurs on the premises but is the result of a wrongful act of a third person and not the possessor of the property. The issues of duty and ca usation are complex in these cases since the injury is not caused by the possessor of the premises directly, but still may be the liability of the owner or possessor of the premises.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Grant Review and Evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Grant Review and Evaluation - Essay Example The scrutiny is necessary because I will not entrust an unknown organization (Sargeant & Lee, 2004) with my money and I need to ensure that I am giving my money to the people who will use it for human welfare only. Frankly speaking I do not trust the organization at this point and will need proof of its effectiveness regarding the ability to serve suffering children in the future. The human value of compassion has compelled me to grant you the money (Canda, 1988) because I have to respond to the noble cause of serving unfortunate children; but I can practice compassion by granting you the least possible amount and my compassion will grow as your operations will expand and become more effective in attainment of the objectives. I am talking openly in this regard due to my sincere intentions and wishes to see your organization in a better and respectable position and I want you to give me more reason to give you more funds. To prove your claim of serving the unfortunate children, you actions and their consequences should bring forth positive results; which are as yet lacking. Furthermore, I pardon about my extremely ruthless behavior but I feel that my actions are necessary in order to make you thrive as an organization. I would like you to work hard in order to win the confidence of donors, thus paving the way for further funding. I wish you good luck in your quest for excellence in the field of humanitarian relief activities. Additionally, I request you to arrange my visit of the facility you are running so that I can evaluate your outlook and performance as it may motivate me to offer more funding in the future. Moreover, to evaluate the living conditions of the children living at your establishment, I need to interview a few children. This will enable me to get a first-hand knowledge of the conditions of the children who are being supported by your

Primary school teachers ICT training in UK Article

Primary school teachers ICT training in UK - Article Example This will be a barrier in the ICT teaching. (Wheeler, 2000). The Teacher ICT training in UK is being offered and driven by the UK government via the Department for Education and Employement (DfEE). It is mandatory for all UK Primary School teachers to take trainings in ICT, and the UK government was working on a 100% target as of the year 2002. The DfEE has got training centers that are used for the trainings. (Wheeler, 2000). The skills that the teachers are being trained on are ICT resource skills. These vary from ability to timetable lessons, offer learning material, offer examinations, check pupil assignments and other extra curriculum activities. (Riel, 2000, p. 9-24). The next skill the teachers learn is the use of ICT educational space to enable modern trend network communications between teacher and pupil. Teachers are also trained in ICT collaborative educational skills that will enable the pupils to social be able collaborate with latest technologies such as discussion formatted ICT lists. Teachers are also trained on the autonomy management of pupil learning which will take as much creative shape as is the technology in the coming days. (Wheeler, 2000). These training are both technical and integrative skills in the classroom lessons. The technical bit of the training is including and goes beyond Computer Mediated Communication.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Discussion# 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion# 2 - Assignment Example This method is appropriate where a researcher has an equal chance of selecting each unit of a population required for the study. The other type of probability method is systematic sample. The method entails collecting of various samples from specific lists of the units required in the study (Gravetter & Forzano, 2011). There are five common types of non-probability sampling that researchers tend to use when carrying out a study. One of these types is known as quota sampling. In this particular method, the main aim that researchers target is the groups focused have to be proportional with the population being studied. The other type of non-probability method is convenience sampling. In this method, researchers manage to include various units in the sample that are easily to access. The other type is purposive sampling. This method is where a researcher relies on his own judgment in selecting various units necessary for the study. The other type is self-selection sampling. This method entails several units or cases to choose on their own to participate in the study. The fifth type of non-probability method is snow sampling. This method is appropriate when the population necessary to participate in the study is hidden or the researcher cannot manage to find it in an easy way (Gravetter & Forzano, 201 1). The most common types of sampling methods seen in nursing research reports are those related to non-probability sampling. Most of these methods include, purposive sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling (Gravetter & Forzano, 2011). This methods support qualitative research where nurses are mostly concerned with the process of the study rather than the outcome (Gravetter & Forzano, 2011). Risk of selecting a bad sample: This entails determining the possible consequences that may emerge when a researcher tend to select a sample not of significance importance in the study (Gravetter & Forzano,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The research report Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

The report - Research Paper Example By June 20th, the secondary research and presentation of the research proposal was completed, and the project was headed for the next steps that included conducting interviews on the respondents chosen for the purposes of this study before documenting and analyzing the data obtained. Following your approval to conduct the research amongst residents of Beverly, the National Association of RELATORS was instrumental in providing the primary data for homebuyers who used various purchase methods to buy their homes. You also approved the proposal to conduct interviews on residents of Beverly, who had recently used one of the investigated purchase options to acquire property and those who had the intention to purchase a home in due time and were having one of the options in mind. The purchase options that were investigated for the purposes of this study include mortgage financing, lease purchase, FHA loans, VA loans and purchase in cash. After the data analysis, the project required a PowerPoint presentation of the report progress which was completed by the 26th of June this year. It is worth mentioning that the primary data was gotten from the certified website of the National Association of RELATORS. This was because the company had been assisting homebuyers in making decisive decisions on what purchase options best suits their circumstances. In the process, the company documented the number of buyers who used various purchase options. As a result, the project was able to obtain dependable data that played a significant role in the completion of this research project. In addition to that, I should not go without mentioning the fact that the respondents chosen for the purposes of this study were corporative and for this reason the project was able to obtain the intended results. My research revealed that it was imperative for potential

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Question of risk assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Question of risk assessment - Essay Example In case of an accident, there are possibilities of planning errors, storage errors, and execution errors in the management field. For example, if the employees of an organization went on strike demanding better remuneration and working conditions. The planning error can occur in this case where the management uses a wrong approach to the problem hence accelerating the problem. This can happen where the managements plans to fire the striking workers instead of addressing their grievances. The storage error that can happen in this scenario may involve how the management will try to contain the strike. Where the management decides to ignore the demands of the striking employees this amounts to a storage error. An execution error in this case may involve how the management makes the ultimate address to the strike. Where the management fires the striking employees, this will jeopardize the operations and performance of the organization. All these errors question the reliability of the sys tematic procedures adopted by the management as stipulated under the SHARP

Saturday, September 21, 2019

History of Childcare Essay Example for Free

History of Childcare Essay History of Childcare Institutions and Qualifications During this essay I will be outlining the history of childcare institutions and qualifications and how they have developed in relation to the needs of the country, family needs and society. I will be looking at the following occupations wet nurses, governesses, nannies and nursery nurses and how qualifications have developed within these roles. I shall them to the qualifications of the present day and how gender and social class have impacted on these professions. Also I shall consider how the curriculum content has changed to meet the demands of the ever changing role of the childcare worker and how it relates to my teaching practice currently and in the future. When focusing on childcare a fundamental starting point is considering the role of the wet nurse and why she was popular and in demand. Wet nursing can date back as far as Moses. When the princess found baby Moses floating down the Nile she asked Miriam to find a wet nurse. In Ancient Egypt poor women used to supplement their income by becoming wet nurses for the upper class citizens or mothers who could not produce enough milk. Contracts were drawn up between them to â€Å"ensure the wet nurse provided good milk; preventing the wet nurse from nursing other children, having sex, or becoming pregnant† (history-wet-nursing, 2011). In many cultures wet nurses were an ancient tradition, for example within the Chinese culture, before the Second World War, wet nursing was common practice. The Communists tried to outlaw the practice but in the 21st century it has become a status symbol and due to the melamine milk scandal this ancient profession has seen a revival. Wet nurses in China today must leave their own children, maintain a special diet, and undergo training in certain cases. Furthermore, if the babies that they nurse do not grow 20 grams each day, the wet nurses are fined by their employers. † (history-wet-nursing, 2011) During the Victorian era it was common place for the upper classes to employ a wet nurse as once more this was seen as a status symbol. Other reasons were that women of this era were usually married to authoritarian husbands who believed that breast feeding interfered with sex and the women themselves assumed that it would disfigure their breasts. Furthermore, during this time infant mortality was high and upper class families were encouraged to have large families to ensure the survival of an heir. Breast feeding provided a form of contraception and prevented ovulation thus, spacing out pregnancies. It wasn’t uncommon for babies to be sent to a wet nurse’s home for 18 to 24 months in order for the mother to become pregnant again. Often a wet nurse could be feeding many children including their own (sometimes to their detriment) and was either paid as well as a labourer or received nothing at all. Morisot, The Wet Nurse (1880) According to Valerie Fildes there were three types of wet nurses â€Å"the parish nurse who took in parish infants and was usually receiving poor relief herself; the nurses of the London Foundling Hospital who worked under the supervision of inspectors; the privately employed nurse, for whom wet-nursing was a significant and continuing occupation for which she received a good wage both in money and in kind: often she was cared for by her nurse-children in later life and received the occasional bequest from them. † (Fildes, 1988, p. 43) The qualities required for a wet nurse by the Victorians were worked out in enormous detail. She should have an attractive face, clear eyes, well made nose, red mouth, white teeth and a deep chest. The shape of her breasts was very important and their size shape and colour were all taken into account. She should also have a good personality, speak well, not be pregnant or desire the company of her husband. The reasons for these specific qualities were that it was thought that they would be transferred through the breast milk to the child (Fildes, 1988). By the middle of the 19th century wet nurses had virtually disappeared although isolated examples still existed (Churchill had a wet nurse). Surprisingly, wet nursing is making a reappearance in society today, there are wet nursing agencies where mothers can employ a wet nurse. Within society today, a woman may choose this option due to health reasons for example extreme illness or disease such as AIDS, an inability to produce breast milk or multiple births. What is more, this privilege is still confined to the upper and middle classes of society who have the means to pay. However, during the Victorian era this may have been seen as common practice but during this century it is quite often seen as a taboo subject,as pregnant mothers are given information about the benefits of breastfeeding from health professionals who actively encourage new mothers to conform with this practice. Alongside this there is the pressure from government initiative and more detailed research, that are changing the ideology of society thinking dismissing the Victorian idea of wet nursing as a status symbol. When comparing the person specification of the wet nurse in the 19th century to today’s wet nurses, it appears that there are some similarities such as being in good health, not smoking or consuming alcohol. Today, they are also vetted and tested for transferable diseases due to the fact more is understood about these by society and health professionals. Furthermore, wet nurses need to have a baby of a similar age in order for the milk to be of the right constitution and they would usually live or work in the employer’s home whereas previously they would have been taken to the wet nurses home. Following on from the wet nurse there is the emergence of nannies. The history of nannies can be traced back as far as the seventeenth century. The English nanny was an institution and was most popular during the 18th century. She is often portrayed in books and films as a kind, gentle woman who children adored; in fiction such as Jayne Eyre, Mary Poppins and more recently Nanny McFee. Before training developed nannies were often what were known as â€Å"gentlewomen† who had fallen on hard time and had to support themselves. They saw being a nanny as a solution to their predicament. Not all nannies were kind, some were extremely cruel. The nanny usually had a great deal of power and responsibility within the home; she had her own quarters to look after the children usually at the top of the house. The upper classes, employed nannies in order for them to continue their leisurely life style. Children at the time were also viewed as they should be â€Å"seen and not heard† and parents left it to the nanny to have total care and responsibility for their upbringing. Parents only spent a short time in the day with them accompanied by the nanny. The nanny would usually have a nursery maid to assist her who would do the menial tasks such as preparing meals and laundry. On the whole, nannies learned from other nannies and progression was usually nursery – maid, nursemaid or under nurse, sometimes a period of working as a second nanny, and then finally a nanny in her own right. In 1892 the first training college was set up by Emily Ward. She ran a school for young children in Norland Place and recognised the need for training. She was one of the earliest advocates of the Froebel system of teaching which was based on the approach â€Å"that all children are born good, and that to help them develop, adults need to provide the right environment and activities. These protect the child from learning bad habits of â€Å"evil tendencies†(Tassoni, 2006, p19). Emily Ward found that many of the students who went to her for training were not academic and found the Froebel examination too difficult despite her students being very practical and having a great love of children. Emily Ward recognised that if the students could be trained, not only would it benefit the children but would provide a new profession for girls of the educated classes. Students were charged a fee of thirty six pounds which covered six months training. The students were also expected to wear a uniform which Emily Ward thought would identify them as professionals and not have them mistaken for housemaids. This leads me to believe that originally the role the nanny was seen for women to earn a respectable living when they found themselves to be in a financial predicament rather than needing a formal qualification. However, during the latter stage of the 19th century the introduction of a formal qualification and fee for training transformed nanning into a profession, but still only allowed educated middle class, girls the opportunity. The students training was broken down into the following:- â€Å"Three fortnights for cooking, laundry, and domestic work, and six weeks spent in the Norland Place School, looking on at lessons, and giving help to the teachers. † (Gibbs, 1960, pg 178) Lectures given in the morning and the afternoons were spent exercising (walks in the fresh air), the evenings were for learning needlework. The second three months were spent in hospital training and the students were then given one month’s holiday before taking a post in a private family as a children’s nurse. If the employer was happy with the student she would continue for another three months and only then would the Norland Certificate be awarded. By today’s standards training was centred around domestic science rather than understanding the child and how they develop, which would confer with the ideology of woman’s role within society at that time as the traditional housewife. However, at a glance nanny’s of today are still required to fulfil domestic duties such as cooking and laundry but this is not curricular based but, has more emphasis on the development of the child. By 1904 the training changed slightly as it was realized that students needed to gain practical experience to do their job and a small nursery was set up overseen by experienced children’s nurses with the students acting as under-nurses. This practice was highly regarded by employers when the students obtained posts, and is seen favourably and useful by employers today. By 1924 fees had risen to eighty pounds and the college expanded. During the Second World War the college and nursery evacuated to Devon, but many of the students gave up their training and joined the women’s services. After the war the college relocated to Chislehurst and students began training again. The course itself was extended from six months to twenty one months and included â€Å"domestic science, educations training, residential nursery training and a hospital nurse course. Students were also taught story-telling and games for the under-fives. (Gibbs, 1960, pg 180) Great emphasis was placed within the training on the needs of the small child, students gained experience of this from working in the nursery attached to the college and nursery schools and infant welfare centres outside of the college. An examination was also introduced at the end of the twenty one month’s the National Nursery Examination Board qualification or NNEB. However, the Norland Certific ate was only awarded to students who had completed one year’s satisfactory work in post which had been agreed by the Principal. Only two years were allowed from the end of training to obtain the full certificate. The college also encouraged students to stay in touch with them for at least three years after completing their certificate. They did this to ensure they could follow the career of each student and ensure that the standard of the college could be maintained. Norland nannies were well respected and there was a constant demand in private posts, nurseries and for posts as school matrons. Norland College was the first training college to open in 1892 and later other colleges began to appear. The Princess Christian Training College for Nursery Nurses opened in Manchester in 1901 under the direct patronage of the Princess Christian (third daughter of Queen Victoria). She suggested that instead of hospital training, a course of home nursing should be introduced. She also felt very strongly that a nurse should be forbidden to punish children herself. The need for training colleges was recognised by the Gentlewomen’s Employment Association (1891), Princess Christian was one of its patrons. Like the Norland College it provided employment for gentlewomen who needed to earn a living at a time when it was not generally acceptable. The Princess Christian College’s training duration was nine months unlike Norland’s six months and was hard and rigorous. Students had to be on duty at six and complete washing and cleaning before breakfast at seven. They had evening lectures and sewing after supper, no holidays and half a day off each week. The college also had testimonial books which recorded each nurse’s career, including a principal’s report and at the end of her training and a reference from her last employer. There is a stark contrast to the training that was provided in 1904 to the qualification we see today. Although there is still a strong emphasis on work based training the standard of the qualification is not as robust as in the 19th and early 20th century and this could be because students are being accepted onto courses with a required level of education and the demands of the role have changed. During the First World War The Princess Christian College ran into financial difficulties and in May 1918 closed. The college reopened again in 1919 in new premises but closed again at outbreak of the Second World War in order for children to be evacuated. After the war the college reopened and reorganised its syllabus and training to cover the changes in social conditions. Training was extended to eighteen months and covered the NNEB requirements (Gibbs, 1960). At the time Mary Ann Gibbs wrote her book â€Å"The Years of the Nannies† (1960) the fees for the eighteen month course at Princess Christian College was ? 270 for a resident student and ? 140 for a non-resident student. Bursaries and local authority grants were available for less well off students. The syllabus in 1960 included:- daily nursery work with babies and small children, instruction in the planning and preparation of infant diets, training in the milk kitchen, general cookery and nutrition, laundry and housewifery, needlework with design and care of children’s clothes, hygiene and physiology and the model nursery. † (Gibbs, 1960, Pg 190) The college awarded three certificates to students the first being a Probationers Certificate on completion of satisfactory training and a Nurse’s Certificate for two years satisfactory work, dating from the ranting of the Probationers Certificate. Finally, the student would be awarded The Special Certificate with Badge for three year’s satisfactory work, dating from the granting of the Nurse’s Certificate. After a student had completed her training she had quite a wide range of employment opportunities such as working as a nanny, working in day and residential nurseries, working with disabled children, school matron, nursery nurses on maternity wards and in passenger liner nurseries. A Night Nurse at The Princess Christian Training College Students who completed their training at the training colleges usually found employment through the college or through advertisements in women’s journals, or professional journals. One of those journals was â€Å"Nursery World† which was first launched in 1925 and is still used by our students today. The other was â€Å"The Lady† first published in 1885 which advertised many employment opportunities for nannies. Nannies are still very much in demand today, their role has changed in that they work closely with parents respecting their views and wishes and are more usually employed by working parents. They are required to be trained to Level 3 and most will have had experience with babies. In contrast, nannies back in the eighteenth century would always live with the family, whereas nannies now can live out. They also have the opportunity to work for families abroad and can command high salaries and additional benefits such as holidays and use of a car. [pic] Advertisements’ from Careers and Vocational Training 10th Edition The role of the nanny was important but you cannot overlook the role of the governess in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. She is portrayed in fiction as a lonely, somewhat stern figure yet many women entered this profession. She would have been a well educated middle-class woman who like the nanny had to provide a living for herself. In Victorian times women were seen as the responsibility of men her husband, father or brother. When they were unable to provide financially for her, working as a governess was seen as socially acceptable. There was a high demand for governesses in he Victorian era (despite the expansion of public school education for boys and public school for the masses) especially if they were competent in teaching math’s and science. â€Å"The census of 1851 showed that there were 24,770 governesses in England and Wales. † (Hudson, 1970, p45) The greatest qualification of the governess was having a good background fitting in with the correct social class. She was required to write a letter of application in order for the family to consider her suitability. Many families l isted subjects they required their governess to teach. â€Å"Wanted, a Governess, on Handsome Terms. Governess – a comfortable home, but without salary, is offered to any lady wishing for a situation as governess in a gentleman’s family, residing in the country, to instruct two little girls in music, drawing, and English; a thorough knowledge of the French language is required. †( Advertisement, The Times. (London: 27 June, 1845). The upper class families still continued to educate their children at home and it was down to the family to decide when their children would enter the school room. In order to ensure their employability they sought to improve their education and this lead them gaining a footing in higher education. During the nineteenth century, professional books and journals were printed for governesses to use. These were read among other teachers and concerned parents to share educational practices and lessons, and keep The Governess them informed of the changing educational reform in the Victorian era. In 1843 The Governesses’ Benevolent Institution was formed and it helped educate governesses and provided aid for retired or out of work governesses in and around London. It also provided a registry for governesses and families seeking a governess to place their information. This was similar to an employment agency today. Along with this and pressure from the governesses the institute expanded and included a college for governesses to study and improve their education. A donation from the Prince and Princess of Wales enabled funding for free night classes. The Queens College was founded in 1848 and its goal was to provide qualifications for governesses, it provided â€Å"Lectures for Ladies† from which at the end of study they received a Diploma. Almost all the lectures were given by men from Kings College, and older women known as â€Å"Lady Visitors† attended to act as chaperones to the female students. It is clear that despite considerable changes from the era of the wet nurse there is still a vast divide between what is considered beyond the realms of the woman as it is the man that is considered able to lecture in the core subjects whilst the woman is only expected to understand and deliver to her charges. The Queens college was seen as an institution offering higher education for women. In the last decade of the nineteenth century the Queens College and The House of Education developed a curriculum specifically for the training of governesses and this saw a drastic change in the profession of the governess. Families now wanted to employ governesses with certificates and training in education rather than, be qualified solely by their family background. We must take into account that at this time education for girls was seen as less important and it was not until the 1900 that attitudes changed when girls started to enter public high school and boarding schools and this resulted in the decline of the governess. Governesses are still employed today but their role has changed. Today they need to hold a degree and at least two years experience as an educator. They may live with the family or live out. They usually have sole charge of the children’s education although in some cases they may just supplement the child’s education. This could be coaching a child to obtain their eleven plus, or providing additional help for specific subjects, or in all subjects, with the goal of preparing students to apply to and be accepted into good colleges. They may also be employed if a family moves to another country so that children can learn the language or maintain the education that correlates to their native country. The profession is still largely female orientated despite the pay and conditions being good. This could be due to several factors such as living in the employer’s home and societies view of a male in a governess role. The Second World War saw an increase in day nurseries as men went away and women were called upon to take over the work left to do at home. The Ministry of Health organised and supervised this provision. In view of this more nursery nurses needed to be trained and in January 1944 The National Nursery Examination Board was formed and they established an examination for all nursery nurses. The first examination was taken in 1946. The syllabus and training has changed considerably over the years, notably in 1965, the age range was extended to seven years of age, before this students trained to work with children up to five years. This decision was prompted by the increase use of classroom assistance in primary schools and the Plowden Report’s (1967) recommendation that nursery nurses should be used for this position. â€Å"In 1975 the Bullock Report, A Language for Life made the same recommendation that nursery nurses should be used as trained assistants and work alongside teachers in helping language development in young children. (Herrman, 1979, p. 21). After the Second World War provision that was put in place for childcare was not expanded further. This was partly due to men needing jobs that women had done in the war, and society’s view that women should be in the home looking after their children. The 1950’s saw the beginning of Playgroups, these were parent co-operatives formed in private homes or community halls. They started in order to fill the gap in nursery provision for three and four year olds. â€Å"In 1961 Belle Tutaev wrote to the Guardian offering help to anybody who wanted to start up a playgroup. She received letters from all over the country and playgroups burgeoned and grew. † (Dean, 2005, Pg 13) The Pre-School Playgroup Association (PPA) was set up in 1962, â€Å"the aims of the organisation at first were two-fold: mutual support for those running groups and also the lobbying of government to emphasise the importance of pre-school provision and to seek the withdrawal of Circular 8/60 which prevented state nursery expansion. † (PLA Factsheet) Playgroups relied heavily on voluntary staff and on mothers to provide play activities for the children. Many of these volunteers were untrained due to lack of funding. This restricted their work opportunities and workers were given little recognition. An additional reason for unqualified staff was that until the Children’s Act 1989 playgroups had little statutory guidance or regulation. Those playgroups that were affiliated with the PPA did have access to training (short courses in play work) if they were able to fund it. The PPA in 1991 established themselves as training providers under the National Council for Vocational Qualifications. Other childcare provision between 1946 and 1990 such as private nurseries and local authority nurseries continued to employ NNEB qualified staff or equivalent. In 1990 there were various childcare qualifications that students were able to study. The main qualifications for nursery nursing were the NNEB, BTEC National Diploma and the Certificate in Post-Qualifying Studies (CPQS). The NNEB being the longest established and well known was still a requirement for some posts but it did not give a valid entry into higher education. However, the BTEC National Diploma was thought to be more academic and allowed students to progress onto more advanced education and training being the equivalent of â€Å"A† Levels. When you look back at the history of the NNEB it was not set out to be a qualification that would allow progress to higher education although comparing it to today’s CACHE Level 3 Diploma it was a lot more rigorous. The selections of qualifications were many and in 1991 a system of National Accreditation was introduced to link qualifications. NVQ’s were introduced in 1991 in attempt to give experienced staff without a qualification a chance to achieve a Level 2 and 3. The NVQ syllabus involved students showing competence in the workplace through assessment whilst building a portfolio of knowledge evidence. This qualification in theory did fill a training gap but funding still remained an issue along with adults having to study around family commitments and also if they had the academic confidence to study. Due to the Start Right Report of 1991 by Bell in which he identified numerous routes into teaching, this was an attempt to provide a standardized route into comprehensive training and also of helping workers to progress through the qualification system. Up until 1999 qualifications remained unchanged in what were available and it left employers and students confused as to what qualification was at what level. In 1999 a new training framework was introduced (QCF) and this mapped out the levels of each qualification. This gave clear guidance for students, employers and training establishments to assess their current qualifications. In 2002 the new NVQ Level 4 was introduced *they were to provide a route for those working in senior management level or advanced practitioners† (Pugh,2001, P. 190) they were academically and practically demanding qualifications and carried 120 CATs points. This was a way of gaining entry to the Early Years Foundation Degree. In 1994 CACHE was established and merged with The National Nursery Education Board and The Council for Early Years Awards. In 2001 the National Association for Maternal and Child Welfare (NAMCW) merged with CACHE, and Her Majesty the Queen became the patron. CACHE at this point became the awarding body and offered various Childcare qualifications from Entry Level to NVQ 4. Since joining Canterbury College in February 2006 the qualifications have changed twice, with a third change is about to take place. The delivery of the courses has not changed in that students still attend placements and have to show competence. The only difference to the NNEB is that the students don’t work with children attached to the college. We have placement visitors that visit the student in their placement who assess their competence and report back to their course tutor. Level 3 students up until 2007 still had to sit an end of course exam in order to qualify as well as passing unit assignments. The qualification carried UCAS points to allow entry to university depending on the overall grade achieved. It was quite clear at the time that the grades students achieved were quite low and very few went onto university. I believe this to be for the following reasons (a) students were not properly assessed at interview and were on the wrong level of course, (b) there was a high level of turnover of staff which affected the teaching of the students and causing disaffection. There was also a big drop out rate. I remember well, my first day in the classroom, being bombarded with complaints. In 2007 CACHE reviewed the content of the syllabus as the previous syllabus was quite dated and childcare practice had changed considerably. The new syllabus carries the same format of placement and academic work and still continued to carry UCAS points. The grading of the assignments changed into a point system instead of the previous system of pass or refer. The students also have to complete a research task and a short seen scenario exam. This I feel has led to students achieving higher grades and more have gone onto university. The department has been running this Level 3 Diploma for the past three years but last year we were advised that the qualification would hange along with NVQ’s being discontinue. This has had a big impact on the department as a whole. The introduction of the Level 3 Diploma for the Children and Young Peoples Workforce will be the only qualification available for students to study to become childcare workers. The delivery of the course is very much based on the NVQ delivery of observed assessment and a knowledge portfolio. We have started to run a pilot group for this new qualification an d it has involved various changes in the department and in the teaching. Students now have to be allocated an assessor who has an A1 qualification and students only attend three days a week every other week. Already, this has posed problems in that the course is designed to be taught holistically and not unit led as the previous qualifications. It is designed so that the assessor and tutor work closely together. This does not work in our department as assessors are constantly out observing students leaving little time for feedback to the tutor. This makes it very difficult to support students and ensure that they are progressing. However, we have recently been informed that due to the qualification not meeting the needs of the employers and students the previous qualification will continue running for at least another year while they review the course. In conclusion, childcare and qualification has developed in line with the needs of the family and society starting with the wet nurse through to nannies and governess. It has also developed in line with government policy and the social and economic needs of the country along with current thinking of child development at the time. Childcare roles have not disappeared but still exist in a modernised way as can be seen in the reappearance of the wet nurse. The status of childcare however still remains low and this is reflected in pay and conditions. Many nurseries still don’t pay above minimum wage or provide sick pay, and often only the minimum holiday requirement. Until this is addressed the status and moral of childcare workers will not rise. There is still a culture of thinking that â€Å"anyone can look after children† and it is still a predominantly female role despite campaigns to attract male candidates. The calibre of students that is seen during interviews are on the whole, students from lower class backgrounds which could have contributed to the introduction of EMA. The fact that students don’t have to pay fees for childcare courses and its workplace element, adds to the perception that they are easy courses. The college funding system makes it very difficult to decline students who we feel not appropriate to the course, and the system makes it difficult to withdraw students who prove to be unsuitable. This does not lead to providing the best possible care for young children. Significantly and in contrast to this is that to train as a Norland Nanny today requires a student to pay full fees and this only attracts the more affluent students who want to train in the profession. Also, to employ a Norland Nanny, is seen as a status symbol by families, thus highlighting social status despite it’s qualification being the same as achieved at college. The only difference being that the Norland Certificate is achieved at the end of the course on top of the qualification and seen as a â€Å"stamp of excellence† The old range of qualifications enabled students to access the qualification that best suited their learning and training needs such as on the job training or a full time college course. The new qualification does not take these needs into account. The new qualification does not fit with young students who have no experience. This is one of the issues that has been highlighted along with the course only being a year in duration. It is quite worrying that a sixteen year old could become a fully qualified level 3 in a supervisory position with only one year of training. There are also wider issues in that the government has reduced funding, (currently there is no funding for over nineteen’s) along with the demise of EMA, making access to college less accessible for less well off students which causes a social divide. The next year will provide interesting times in childcare qualifications and a review in our own department in the teaching and delivery will provide its own challenges in that e-learning is being introduced along with apprentiships. This will mean training in the use to technology as well as new assessment methods. Staff will have to adapt their delivery of lessons as well as developing a closer working partnership with assessors, which at the current time is fragmented. There will need to be changes in the current systems in place and this will no doubt cause frustration to some staff who find adapting to change difficult. On a more positive note the updating of skills for staff will only improve the range of teaching techniques available to them, hopefully providing better outcomes for students.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Behavioural Theories of Child Development

Behavioural Theories of Child Development Alyshea Davies Child development and welfare Development and child rearing 2.1 – Explain the extent to which conditioning has been used in the shaping behaviour The method shaping is involved in calculated reinforcement which is behaviour trained to them by the trainer. The trainer rewards them for crude approximations of a desired action. One the trainer then rewards then with a behaviour reward this is one step closer towards their target. As the people/animal reaches each behaviour target the older behavioural rewards are stopped which then help to encourage their process towards their desired behaviour. Shaping uses an operant conditioning to help to train a subject by rewarding them properly for their good behaviour and discouraging their improper behaviour. B.F. Skinner enforces heavily within the reinforcement or punishment so that the successive approximations of certain behaviours. The reinforcement helps to strengthen the behaviour that comes before it, it can either have a positive or negative outcome. Positive reinforcement is the person/animal attaining the access to a reward, whilst the negative reinforcement involving taking something away from the situation. Both positive and negative behaviour encourages reinforcement, punishments on people/animals could have a positive or negative outcome. Positive punishments is an undesirable consequence on the person/animal whereas a negative punishment removed the access to desire a reward. B.F Skinner performed shaping experiments, he experimented on a lot of animals which included rats. He would put the rats into skinner boxes that monitored their behaviour, he would release food for the rats and when the rats initially entered the box skinner would reward the rat. Each reward would increase of the desired behaviour. This have been tested on humans to and has the same reactions. 2.2 – Discuss the appropriateness of behavioural method in terms of effectiveness and ethics A discipline is something that can help a child fit into the real world and be happy and effectively. It helps to develop the child’s own self-discipline. Effective and positive discipline is not being nasty it is teaching and helping to guide children, not forcing them to obey it’s teach them how to live in the real world. Even though they point out unacceptable behaviour of the child, the child should know that their parents do love them and support them they need to be taught between right and wrong. Being a parent is not just about watching a child it’s about raising the child and providing them with all the necessary materials and emotional care that they need also their physical, emotional, cognitive and social development. Any parent finds that discipline their child is the most difficult but the most important responsibility they have and there are no shortcuts to it. Every parent must teach their child about limits and acceptable behaviour. The main aim of effective discipline so that the child behaviours appropriately so that they will be raised up to be an emotionally mature adult. The main reason for foundation of effective discipline is for respect and how to learn to respect others. All children should be able to respect their parents. Hard discipline such as verbal abuse, shouting or calling your child names will make it hard for your child to respect or trust you as the parent. An effective discipline means a discipline applied with mutual respect in a firm, fair, reasonable and consistent way not a hard and angry way. The goal of this is to help and protect a child from danger and to help a child learn self-discipline and develop healthy conscience. But hitting a child hard may lead to them discipline someone in the wrong way, and this could cause another person to become hurt. 2.3 – Critically evaluate the use of power assertion techniques in enforcing restrictions, compare with other psychological methods Authoritarian parents could go over the top and end up hurting a child instead of teaching them what good behaviour is and looks like from reinforcement may be more beneficial as if Bandura is right and kids to copy their parents and could become aggressive as their parents are the people that they look at to and their parents are the child’s role models. The critics of bandura said that any parent may not be the only imitated the child looks up to they could look up to parents, older siblings. So the child is more likely to be copied and consequently a parent beating the child may be imitated. 3.1 – define social learning and relate experimental evidence Albert Bandura has proposed a social learning theory which has become one of the most influential theory’s for learning and developing. Bandura believed that leading a child into the direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning that they need. Behavioural theories of learning suggested that learning of children was the result of associations which were formed by conditioning, reinforcement and punishment. Bandura’s social learning theory proposed that a child learning can also happen simply by watching others and picking up on the stuff they do. This is known as observational learning or modelling. He quoted †¦.. Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. -Albert Bandura,Social Learning Theory, 1977 Bandura done Bobo doll experiments, he said that children learn their behaviour they have watched within other people around them. The children he studied all observed an adult acting very violent towards the Bobo dolls. When the children were playing in the room later on with the Bobo dolls, they were aggressive this is because they watched the adults being aggressive earlier on and they must of fort the behaviour was a normal way to act towards the Bobo dolls. 3.2 – critically evaluate the impact of modelling on child development Children learn appropriate behaviour and learn how to follow rules and emotional attachment with their family also depends on how the child behaves. Children watch their parents say â€Å"please† and â€Å"thank you† and they tend to copy whereas if they did not say it the would copy and have no manners at all and people would label them as â€Å"rude and not polite†. The importance of an adult modelling is that it has an impact on the child’s behaviour. The negative side of child modelling is the adult’s bad behaviour such as using alcohol, tobacco and drugs both illegal and legal. This will teach the children in their eyes that this is right to do, when it’s not alcohol may cause the adult to become aggressive and the child will think that this behaviour is normal and start to act this way towards other people. Conditions Using Novel object to hit the Bebo doll Exhibiting non aggressive actions Model being praised Child 1 from video 1 2 1 Child 2 from video 1 6 0 Child 3 Girl Aged 5 3 2 Child 4 Boy Aged 3 4 0 Child 5 Girl Aged 4 3 2 Child 6 Boy Aged 4 4 1 Model being punished Child 1 Boy Aged 3 2 5 Child 2 Boy Aged 5 1 6 Child 3 Girl Aged 4 0 3 Child 4 Girl Aged 5 0 5 Child 5 Girl Aged 4 1 4 Child 6 Boy Aged 4 2 5 Title A study to investigate whether children learn from observing a model exhibiting aggressive behaviour to a Bobo doll Table of contents NEXT SHOULD COME YOUR TABLE OF CONTENTS, WHICH INCLUDE PAGE NUMBERS Abstract DO NOT WRITE UNTIL REPORT IS COMPLETE Induction Bandura was a behaviourist he believed that children’s behaviour could be shaped by operant conditioning or through classical conditioning. This would help to improve punishment, negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement. Bandura also found that the original theory for this was called â€Å"clumsy† that would of meant that all behavioural problems that would have had to been shaped. If he did not do this he would not of been able to live as we do today now in our complex social societies. Bandura took one step further by testing on Bobo dolls for his experimenting to see how a child behaviour after their parents were aggressive towards the Bobo dolls. This then showed him that the children were aggressive afterwards when their parents left the room and they were left to play with them. Condoning have also been used to help shape animals behaviour and this have also been related to us humans by training us how to say â€Å"thank you and please†. Reinforcem ent is how an adult has the power over a child and how a child is punished in good and bad ways. This helps the child when they are growing up to learn the difference between right and wrong. Aim The aim of this test is to find out do children copy their parents and are they modelled by them. For example, a Bobo doll was used in the test the children watched their patents hit the Bobo doll and become aggressive towards it, and once the children were left alone with the Bobo doll they done the same thing they started to hit the doll and they become aggressive towards the doll. Hypothesis I found the hypothesis was true after the children’s parents were aggressive towards the Bobo dolls and the children were watching them. Once the parents left the room and the children were left to play with the Bobo dolls the children become aggressive towards the dolls like their parents. None of the children were non aggressive towards the dolls. The null hypothesis has no significant difference between condition 1 which is the child who are being praised and condition 2 is where the child is being punished when they are acting aggressive towards the Bobo dolls. Method This was an observation experiment I watched videos and carry out charts to see how the children acted with the Bobo doll after their parents were aggressive with it first. Throughout the independent subject design there was parents and children. The parent was female and was hitting the Bobo doll first then the first child was a boy and the second child was a girl. The apparatus was the video of the parent and children who were aggressive towards the Bobo doll and I had to do a mark sheet (which is above) and write down the aggressive and non-aggressive acts. I also used a stop watch to observe the time used throughout the experiment. Result The results of my descripitive statics, are the graphs and the results of the statistical test that I carried out below: Inferential statistics/ treatment of result I used a parametic test over a non-parametic test because this test helped me to make assumptions about the parameters of population distribution from the charts that are shown on my results, whereas a non-parametic test is one that makes no such assumption. I compared two different groups of participants the one group was the children who was punished after becoming aggressive towards the Bobo doll and the other group was the children who was being praised. After the data I have collected I have decided that the result of treatment is nominal.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

In less than a years time, Kyle Warren had been seen by four different medical doctors, each one with their own diagnosis that included autism, bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression), insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Kyle's pill regimen kept multiplying, consuming daily harmful cocktail of mind- altering drugs including Risperdal (anti-psychotic), Prozac (antidepressant), Adderall (psycho-stimulant) and two sleeping medicines. Kyle Warren was only eighteen months old at the time (Wilson 11). Kyles story is not rare, in fact, it has became what I refer to as a â€Å"to common† case. For that matter, it was a story much like this one that got me interested in the mental health system and prompted me to educate myself on all the parts of this industry. I will disclose results from three years of research, including a short history of important milestones for the profession, what lead up to the mass l abeling and drugging in America, the reasons behind petitions for change by professionals in this very field, and the need for the immediate and complete reform of the mental health system. The goal of this analysis is to raise awareness on this issue by sharing information as to the identity of the culprits behind the corruption and the harm to human lives by breaking the system that no longer works for the people it is meant for. The suggestion of key players forming a relationship seemed ideal at first—a scientific partnership that could attack mental illness from all sides, or a meeting of the minds if no shift to second person:you will. A proposed partnership, with psychiatrists bringing their expertise and clinical experience, the drug makers provi... ... Depression (NARSAD), all created by these APA and NIMH directors, the very organizations that needed the invention of these advocacy groups in order to make demands on Congress for increased funding. Not only was this a great lobbying strategy but also a brilliant marketing scam since all of these groups had board or advisory board members with financial ties to pharmaceutical companies, are heavily funded by drug companies, and still are to this day. (â€Å"NIMH celebrates Half-Century of Progress, 31) NAMI’s campaign to stop the â€Å"stigma† and â€Å"end discrimination† against the mentally ill, driven and funded once again by the ones who benefit the most from more and more people being labeled mentally ill. The â€Å"Founding Sponsors† of this campaign were Abbott Labs, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Pfizer, Novartis, SmithKline Beecham and Wyeth-Ayerst Labs (cchr)

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Economic Underpinnings of the First Industrial Revolution in England :: essays research papers

The Economic Underpinnings of the First Industrial Revolution in England The manufacture of military munitions and the development of a home market were critical underpinnings of the first industrial revolution in Britain. Military manufacturing supported by the British Government contributed directly to technological innovation and spurred industrialization. This is because the companies that choose to fulfill the government contracts to make military munitions found money could be made if new processes and technology was developed to fulfill the huge contracts. Military manufacturing was one of the few industries where innovation was rewarded. In most other industries conservative investors were reluctant to invest in new manufacturing technology. But in military manufacturing the government was the investor and was unconcerned with the manufacturing technology as long as the product was delivered on time. Many technological advances were made through military manufacturing some of these were new ways to manufacture iron, conveyer belts, and the use machine tools . The technology developed for military manufacturing then spilled over into the civilian sector of the economy. And because it was now a tested technology investors who were normally cautious were willing to put their capital into these ventures which instead of pouring iron to make guns now made iron ore into stoves and pots. The second critical underpinning of the first industrial revolution was the development of a home market in Britain. The first British industrialists manufactured textiles; specifically cotton for the home market. The growth of the home market in Britain promoted industrialization in several ways. First, it was a steady market which able to cushion the export market which was very dynamic and had sudden fluctuations. This allowed a steady rate of growth even when exports fell. Second, the home market started the process of urbanization by causing people to leave the agricultural sector of the economy and move to the cities to work in the cotton and textile factories. This urbanization had a snowballing effect throughout the economy because it caused other business and factories to open in the cities to support this new urban class. Third, the home market caused investments to be made in improving infrastructure including roads,

Fishes :: essays research papers

There are two classes of fishlike creatures in the Chordate Phylum. The first is Chondrichthyes Class, which comprises mainly of Sharks and Rays. The seconds is the common Bony fishes of the class Ostechithyes. The apparent similarities between each speech are only skin deep. They have similar dapperly solely because of convergent evolution and not because of any close evolution connection. There paired fins can identify class Chrondrichthyes, which comprises namely of sharks and rays, their completely cartilaginous skeletons and biting jaws characteristic of the group. Chrondrichthyes are mainly carnivorous, and the sharks have highly adept senses for vision, olfaction, and hearing. They even posses a system of microscopic organs which can detect changes in water pressure around the shall. Sharks do not possess gills flaps like a fish so a shark must continuously move in order to obtain enough oxygen to survey. The large teeth of a shark are evolutionarily derived from jagged skin scales. Which are apparent on shark’s ancestor’s Placodermi class. The digestion system of a shark contains a “spiral valve'; intestinal system, which increases the surface area and lengthens the time food is digested in the unusually short intestine system of a shark. Sharks sexually reproduce. Unlike a shark, rays have flattened bodies so they can hide themselves in the sa nd at the bottom of any shallow water area and wait for a meal. Rays also have a whiplike tail for defense and jaws, which it uses to crush mollusks and crustaceans. Class Osterrichhthyes has the most separate species of any vertebrate class. Unlike their oceanic cosines Bony fish have a skeleton made from calcium phosphate and a slimy skin covered by bony armorlike scales. Fish of the Osterrichhthyes class have gill flaps call an operculum. On the side of there head which have flaps that move while the fish is stationary drawing in water which the fish can convert into oxygen. An unusual characteristic of bony fish is that they can control their density and this control their buoyancy by means of a unique swim bladder. Fish system of flexible fins in another adaptation the fish have made. Unlike sharks bony fishes fertile externally and even in the Osterrichhthyes Class there is great variation in reproductive techniques. There are two distinct subclasses of fishes, Ray finned and fleshy finned, each has a common ancestor. Though divergent evolution the ray finned fish have become a separate class from the fleshy finned.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Intersectionality and assignment Essay

Intersectionality Assignment The definition of intersectionality states that it is the social theory suggesting various socially and culturally constructed categories of discrimination interact on multiple and often simultaneous levels, contributing to systematic social inequality. Intersectionality holds that the classical models of oppression within society, such as those based on race/ethnicity, gender, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, class, or disability do not act independently of one another; instead, these forms of oppression interrelate creating a system of oppression that reflects the â€Å"intersection† of multiple forms of discrimination. ( I think the author intended to include intersectionality in the story to show that people have the tendency to categorize others immediately without even getting to know them. As humans we judge others way too much for our own good and we don’t even realize we are doing it majority of the time. I think Morrison’s main purpose in Recitatif is to make the reader a lot more aware of their stereotypical judgements about different races based on the use of different signs that Twyla and Roberta display as characters throughout the story. By writing with this technique of using hidden signs in the text it makes the reader begin to try to naturally figure out the races of Twyla and Roberta. She also includes things in this story such as their views on intelligence, physical appearance, racial tensions, wealth and social class. I think Morrison hopes to make her readers aware that we are all guilty of using stereotypes that this society has created for us. It’s just what we have known all our lives. Maybe a learned behavior from our parents, grandparents, or anyone we are around a lot. Everyone, even if they are racist or the most non-racist human being on earth, makes judgments on a â€Å"different† person that doesn’t fit into their â€Å"norm †. If I had to take a guess I would say Twyla is black and Roberta is white. One part in the story Roberta says that â€Å"they never washed their hair and they smelled funny†,  referring to Twyla. Roberta also said this about Twyla’s mother â€Å"She was big. Bigger than any man and on her chest was the biggest cross I’d ever seen. I swear it was six inches long each way. And in the crook of her arm was the biggest bible ever made.† This description sounds like a big African American mother because that’s what you could picture her as. Being Christian, not interested in being friends with Roberta’s mother, and storming away from her gets my mind visualizing that she is the attitude black big momma type of woman. Another thing I decided to look at to help me decide was their names. As the story goes on it gets harder to keep the same the same thought process on who’s apart of what race because of the different stereotypes and statements that are made by the characters when they continue to cross paths later in life. Also because as an individual you start to realize that you are judging and trying not to. For me that begun a whole new way of thinking and continuously changed my opinion about the reading several times At times Roberta could possibly be the black girl and Twyla could be white. In conclusion, its basically left up to you to decide who’s what race and its really going to open your eyes to how judgmental you can be and how big of a role these everyday stereotypes really have on your mind, even when it seems that you have no racism or judging in you.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Plight of U.S. Farmers and Workers

The structure and style of politics in the late nineteenth century were evolving based on what party held power in our government. Social, religious, ethnic and regional factors determined party ties but third parties were emerging. Consider the conditions In America on the eve of the 20th Century.Write a minimum of two paragraphs for the following discussion prompt: What problems did U. S. Farmers and workers face In the sass and how did they try to solve them? The prices of the crops were falling and were at an low and there wasn't end in sight due to things as of the weather and other death rising factors like materials being over produced in the North and the East while the West and the South struggled. Goldfield, 2014) This added so much hardship for so many farmers that most could not afford to pay for the cost for using the railroad to ship their goods and as crops failed, It made It Impossible for the farmers to pay off their debts and many farmers lost their farms, lands, cr ops and all other sources of income forcing many onto sharecropping, (Goldfield, 2014) This led a need for change and people started looking for other options.They pleaded for help from the Government, but showing that they cared little to none and by doing nothing to help the people left planning and coming up with their own solution, â€Å"Farmers Alliance† (Goldfield, 2014) This was a big playoff with so much against such Like many to most people were still separated by race and neither could grow past the pettiness to try to think of even helping each there with such preformed alliance and even with such like economic and political reform smoothly for most more deeper separation based on race.Made this a long sighted has black farmers, including the leaders that were colored and section of the Farmers Alliance were killed an of the Farmers Alliance that came followed by depression and it was one out for themselves. The Government had no control with more violence that rul ed the people and the streets. The railroad had over expended, hundreds of banks closed, along with thousands of businesses. (Goldfield, 2014) Since o much money stopped flowing at one time there was no way for the economy to come back to life.In order for the depression to end, the people needed jobs and they needed farms that could support the Nation. They had to have banks that could provide lines of credit to get the Nation Jump started. With the fall of the economy In other Nations only added to our turmoil and they cost too much to use as export markets. Which Is reason exporting trade system came right with or after. References Goldfield, D. , Abbot, C. Anderson, V. Reselling,J. Argentines, P, Barney (2014).

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Porter’s five forces analysis on shipping industry

Objective of the report The main purpose of this report is: To have an overview of the Strategic Management of PAL. To assess different strategies applying different analytical concepts, tools and techniques of Strategic Management To provide suggestions for possible strategic erection for the Shipping industries in the coming days based on findings of the report. 1. 3. Methodology The company websites, annual reports, vision & mission, values and objectives, other booklets & manuals etc were studied to identify the strategies of the Shipping industries.Top level executives and other employees were also consulted to have their opinion on the rationale of different strategic moves of the company. The theoretical bases for the reports are primarily those taught as part of Strategic Management course. The industry competitiveness and outlook have been reviewed. The tools and techniques such as Strategic group mapping,PESTLE analysis, Porter's five forces model of competition, SOOT analy sis, Key Success Factors (SF), five basic generic business strategies and other strategies like alliance, diversification, etc were applied. . 4. Scope and limitations This report has covered key business strategies of the Shipping in relation to target customers. It also covered strategies in network expansion, operational strategies The report also has attempted to give insights in the strategies of product offering and differentiations, customer services, strategic alliance with other partners, verifications, industry competitiveness, Ethics and CARS, Corporate culture and leadership etc. The report also has certain limitation too.It has not been possible to managed due to time constraint. 2. Organizational Overview PAL is the world's seventh largest ocean carrier and global top 100 plushy chain solution provider in shipping which has the same Mother Company Neptune Orient Line (NOEL) About Neptune Orient Lines: Neptune Orient Lines (NOEL) is a Singapore-based global transportati on company, with core businesses in container transportation and supply chain management. Global strength of over 12,000 employees 0 Revenue amounting to US$8. Billion in 2013 Mol's shipping and supply chain businesses synergies to create total value chain' for its customers. PAL Liner: Container Shipping & Terminals 0 World's 7th largest shipping operator O SUDS. B revenue (IFFY) 0 160 + years of continuous operation 0 Global network serves 33,000+ locations in 150 countries 0 130+ vessels, 6. MM Tees, 10 terminals. PAL – Moving Business Forward PAL is the world's seventh largest ocean carrier, offering more than 80 weekly services and over 500 calls at more than 140 ports worldwide.We provide container transportation and value added supply chain management services through our international shipping network which combines high-quality intermediate operations with state-of-the-art information technology, equipment and e-commerce. Transportation and logistics company. With ov er 160 years of experience, PAL has the knowledge and the expertise to help our customers grow their businesses and negotiate in an increasingly complex and ever-changing global marketplace – whether that is venturing into new territories or growing in already developed markets.With our highly competitive transit times, petition for service reliability and excellence and commitment to sustainable global trade, shippers the world over place their trust in us to provide them the value they need to compete in today's global economy. Services Shipping services spanning the world's major trade lanes Extensive U. S. Intermediate network to facilitate inland reach Priority access to PAL owned and operated terminals on the U. S.West Coast and strategic terminals in Asia Vertical expertise o Refrigerated and climate-controlled cargo o Garments on Hanger PAL Fleet PAL has one of the international shipping industry most technologically advanced and environmentally friendly fleets PAL in vests in our equipment to ensure we provide customers with the most efficient services. We operate a modern fleet of approximately 150 vessels. In line with our environmental commitment, we continue to improve the performance and efficiency of our ships.The strength of our container fleet is closely matched to the demand for both lineal and feeder routes. Our own vessels are complemented by services with alliance partners and slot charter agreements that provide flexibility to adjust capacity and respond quickly to customer needs and new opportunities. The average age of PAL container ships is less than 9 years and every vessel is certified with the latest ISM (International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention) standards.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

How Classroom Environments Affect Child Development Essay

When it comes to education so many different factors can affect a child’s learning and development in a classroom. First of all the temperature of the main class of which the child is learning in so such as the heating/air conditioning, if the classroom is too hot, eg. On a hot day a child may feel sick/dizzy this will affect the child’s concentration and well being similar to a highly air conditioned classroom where it may be extremely cold the child may get ill because of it. Another important part of a child’s education is having the right equipment to enable them to learn so ensuring the equipment the child uses is not outdated, broken or dangerous is essential to give the child the best learning experience possible, as children with excellent facilities are likely to enjoy school more and find school easier because they have the access they need to give them the ability to learn. Space is really important especially with children, so the size of the classroom can impact a child’s learning experience, small cramped classrooms, which could be overcrowded due to a large amount of pupils could make it hard for pupils to concentrate or in some extreme cases dangerous. So having a classroom a good/reasonable size in proportion to the amount of students attending is essential. Although this usually depends greatly on the location of the school as students from a city are more likely to have larger classes than those of a rural setting. Read more: Influences that affect children’s development essay This leads on to the next point, of other students affect a child’s learning experience, if a class is full of disruptive pupils a child is not going to learn as well as a classroom which is full of students which are quiet and willing to learn. Teachers have a massive impact on a classroom, their behaviour and characteristics can affect the learning of their class. Even tempered, fair, humorous teachers have a much more positive influence on learning experience than a moody, unfair, overly strict teacher. If a child is falling asleep, getting ill regularly, is lacking in performance or regularly disrupting classes they may be struggling. This is when you would approach the teacher and discuss the child’s behaviour and performance and the possible reasons behind the child’s behaviour this may mean more structured lessons, more one on one time, change of seating arrangements etc. but this may be monitored, and the teacher may follow this up with a discussion with the child’s parent if necessary.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Canaanites Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Canaanites - Research Paper Example Actually speaking, God allowed Canaanites a time span of 400 years so that their abominations could ripen to receive the justice of God. By ordering the Israelites to attack and exterminate the Canaanites, God achieved two objectives. First and foremost, He brought a true and righteous judgment on the deserving Canaanites. The Canaanites’ gods were known to engage in varied types of abominations that included bestiality and incest. Secondly, by commanding the extermination of the Canaanites, God succeeded in preparing the land for His true followers so as to give way to an appropriate religious setting to justify the advent of the Messiah, who had to redeem both the Israelites and the Gentiles. Therefore, to be able to grasp a possible insight into the ways of God within a Biblical context, it is imperative to delve on the history, religion and the culture of the abominable people like Canaanites. History of Canaanites Canaanites are the people variedly described throughout th e historical and biblical records. Yet, most of the times the Canaanites were shown to be centered in Palestine (Driver 24). Perhaps the native, pre Israelite inhabitants of Palestine were known by the name Canaanites. The term Canaan and Canaanites could be traced in the ancient Egyptian records dating back to fifteenth century BC and more profusely in the Old Testament. Geographically speaking, varied biblical and historical records tend to place Canaanites in varied locations. As per some records, Canaan referred to an area encompassing most of Syria and Palestine (Driver 136). As per some other records, Canaan ascribed to the land lying to the west of Jordan River (Driver 136). Some records consider Canaan merely to be a strip of coastal land to the north of Acre (Driver 146). It was some time at the ebb end of the second millennium BC that the Israelites conquered and exterminated Canaanites. The Holy Bible tends to justify the extermination of Canaanites by associating Canaan with the Promised Land that was promised by God to the Israelites and their descendents. The origins of the word ‘Canaanite tends to be a bit disputed. However, many historians believe that the word ‘Canaanite’ originated from an ancient Semitic word meaning â€Å"reddish purple†, related to the rich purple dye that was manufactured in the area of Canaan or the wool dyed in a rich purple color (Driver 135). The Bible identifies Canaanites to be the descendents of Ham. Canaan happened to be the brother of Mizarim and the fourth son of Ham. Actually speaking, it was Canaan who happened to be the grandson of Noah, who was cursed by Noah in Genesis. In that context, historically speaking, Canaanites tend to have a vicious and evil ancestor. Perhaps, with the passage of time, Canaanites metamorphosed into a general term referring to all the tribes that inhabited the west of Dead Sea and the East of Jordan River. As per the available historical findings, the paga n ancestry of the Canaanites could be traced back to Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages (McCown 77). It was sometime during the Bronze Age that Semitic people are known to appear in the area known by the name Canaan (McCown 77). It was primarily the Semitic Amorites who entered Canaan from the northeast

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Liberation Theology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Liberation Theology - Essay Example Many European priests heeded his call and went to work alongside their Latin American colleagues. "In time, the arrival of priests who were accustomed to the economic and political situation in developed countries contributed significantly to the development of liberation theology". (Tombs, 2002, p. 18) The influx of foreign priests encouraged a sense of renewal in the Latin American church and particularly strengthened those who believed that poverty could and should be prevented. In the many instances where progressive priests faced resistance and persecution, the foreign priests were sometimes at an advantage over local nationals. This is the reason as to why "the Theology of Liberation and other early works of liberation theology focused attention on the urgent need for social justice and suggested a more open attitude towards socialism and Marxist analysis". (Tombs, 2002, p. 137) "Many poor families had lost their land and were forced to move to urban areas or remain in desperate conditions in rural areas, facing social exclusion". (Ribeiro, 1999, p. 304) Despite Liberation Theology, the main reason for confronting to the poor people of the society is that we have kept the basic principles of liberation theology aside, and are unable to recognize the true face of capitalism. T he Gospel messages have been out of touch from our lives. We can again start developing those liberation rules in our lives, which we have put aside. Those rules will make us start once again act according to true theologians of liberation. For this purpose we must start reading the bible in order to make it clear the social injustice confronted by the poor. We must percept the real image of socio analytical capitalistic system, which always dominated the poor in the context of human rights. The perception of social reality must be seen and implemented in the light of Bible quotations. Before a plan for a social program is being floated, the question to consider is, "Will this, or will this not, improve the situation of the poor" If it will, it should be supported, since it will bring about a consequent broadening of the degree of social justice in society. If it will not, it should be opposed, as it will simply entrench the non-poor with greater power than ever. "The opposite of a preferential option for the poor would be a preferential option for the rich, assuming that if the rich get more and more money and goods, some of the gains will 'trickle down' to the poor. This is a convenient theory for the well-to-do, but it is a dubious bit of economics, since those with wealth are exceedingly loath to share it with others, and the result of a preferential option for the rich is almost always that the rich get richer while the poor get poorer". (Brown, 1993, p. 32) There must be an equal distribution of wealth according to the principles of Liberation Theology. To feel the societal injustice, one must not find it hard how a verse in the scripture rings a responsive cord in the lives and hearts of the two thirds of the human family who go to bed hungry every night, or the parents who fear that their child will be one of the fifteen thousand children who die every day from starvation or malnutrition. "If we were truly hungry, we would have greate r